404 Revista del Instituto Español de Estudios Estratégicos Núm. 2 / 2013 of the main problems that women face on a global level: first, the impact that armed conflict has on women and young girls; and second, the role that women can play in peacebuilding. These are two fundamental issues to ensure advances in “empowerment” in peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities – allowing women real access to power structures, because “peace is inextricably linked to equality between men and women”, as the resolution states. The assumption is, then, that women and the gender perspective are relevant for peacebuilding, in areas such as the negotiation of peace accords, implementation of peacekeeping operations, planning and operation of refugee camps, or consolidation of social reconstruction processes following a military conflict18. The resolution was adopted unanimously and is the most important resolution in favour of women, peace and security. Its dense content requires continuous work so as to be able to develop with the times. Following Resolution 1325, the Security Council adopted Resolutions 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013)19. The latest resolution, adopted in June 2013, is directed mainly at combating sexual violence against women in armed conflicts. It affirms categorically that “sexual violence, when used or commissioned as a method or tactic of war or as a part of a widespread or systematic attack against civilian populations, can significantly exacerbate and prolong situations of armed conflict and may impede the restoration of international peace and security”20. A significant point is the reference this resolution makes to two figures with “distinct” roles: “Gender Advisers” and “Women Protection Advisers”, and the importance gi-ven to their adequate training and deployment. In particular, Gender Advisers should “ensure that gender perspectives are mainstreamed in policies, planning and implementation by all mission elements”21 in all United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian operations, and this requires that “comprehensive gender training of all relevant peacekeeping and civilian personnel”22 be assured. The Security Council reiterates the need for “all predeployment and in-mission training of troop- and police-contributing country contingents to include training on sexual and gender-based violence, which also takes into account the distinct needs of children”, and encourages an “increase in the number of women recruited and deployed in peace operations”23. Contingents should be subject to a “policy of zero 18 PÉREZ VILLALOBOS, Mª Concepción: Mujer, paz y Seguridad. El tratamiento del género en las Fuerzas Armadas, Op. cit., p. 72. 19 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/feature/wps/index.html#docs (last viewed: 18/08/ 2013). 20 United Nations, Resolution 2106(2013), of 24 June, § 1. 21 United Nations, Resolution 2106(2013), of 24 June, § 8. 22 United Nations, Resolution 2106(2013), of 24 June, § 8. 23 United Nations, Resolution 2106(2013), of 24 June, § 14.
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