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REVISTA HISTORIA MILITAR 119

14 ALBERTO BRU SÁNCHEZ-FORTÚN PALABRAS CLAVE: Restauración, recompensas y ascensos de guerra, corporativismo militar, escalas abierta y cerrada, reformismo militar, Juntas de Defensa, campañas de Marruecos. ABSTRACT Caciquism and its network of patronage, were the political and social foundation of the Bourbon Restoration (1874-1931); this was a serious obstacle for public employees exercising their right to a career. Army officers suffered a similar situation to that of their civilian counterparts. As well as the hypertrophy of the scales, the main threat to their professional career were war promotions, since the fact that they were granted as privileges could open the door to patronage practices by big and small caciques in the military corporation. In order to defend themselves against this aggression, professional soldiers demanded a closed scale both in peace and in war. Their struggle took them to create the famous Military Juntas in 1917. My aim has been to present the whole process through the debate it aroused in the civilian and military press, in professional publications and in Parliament, without forgetting to analyze the legislation which was in force at that time or the reformist efforts to change it. I have also discussed the initiatives of the Juntas regarding war promotions and the closed scale, as well as the difficulties faced by the commanding body in order to get the Morocco campaign off the ground without offering any rewards. Finally, I have felt it necessary to carry out what might be the first quantification of this type of promotion based on dependable sources. KEY WORDS: Restoration, war rewards and promotions, military corporatism, open and closed scales, military reformism, Military Juntas, Morocco campaigns. * * * * * Revista de Historia Militar, 119 (2016), pp. 14-66. ISSN: 0482-5748


REVISTA HISTORIA MILITAR 119
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